Consideration On Landscape Lighting Design

- Jun 14, 2018-

Landscape lighting design, what need to think about?


Since the development of urban landscape lighting, lighting designers have accumulated rich experience.

Every link of planning, design, construction, acceptance, management and evaluation seems to have certain patterns and standards to follow, and many excellent typical cases are born.

We come back to, however, there is need for rational thinking, serious summary, examining whether the planning, execution, design conformed to the specification requirements, the safety and reliability of the project is complete, energy saving index whether conform to the requirements of the country, and so on.




From the perspective of design, whether the concept of design is innovative, whether the scheme is optimized, especially whether the written expression of the scheme meets the requirements, whether the text of the scheme design is normalized and standardized, etc.


This paper discusses the problems that should be paid attention to in the formulation of urban landscape lighting design scheme.



The problem of landscape lighting design should be considered


Functional considerations


The image of the building should reflect its functionality. For example, government organs should be more solemn and should not be commercial like shopping malls.

Residential areas should create a quiet atmosphere;

Ballroom and other places of entertainment should be cheerful and lively feeling, so at night with lighting to show the image of the building should create a corresponding atmosphere and artistic style.

The style of lamps and lanterns should also consider the style of the subject and the social and historical background.


Consider finishes


People feel about object brightness, depending on the object reflected light intensity to the human eye, when the surface reflection coefficient is very low, or the reflection spectrum of material surface can do not tally with the projected light color (e.g., will play on the red green light), increase the flux in order to improve the brightness, often cannot achieve the desired effect and waste of energy.

Therefore, the nature of decorative materials in landscape lighting design cannot be ignored.


Consider key areas


The lamplight of key part should undertake design according to its characteristic, can make key part outstanding not only and have individual character more.


Consider the relationship between the monomer and the whole


Landscape lighting design must have overall planning in order to make the whole group have the key, have foil, have rhythm feeling, the whole city has style, have taste.

In order to achieve this goal, the monomer design should have an overall concept, and the intensity and color of light should be coordinated with the surrounding environment and the position of the irradiated objects in the environment, which conforms to the requirements of the planning.

At present, some units to highlight their own novelty, regardless of the surrounding environment, arbitrarily improve lighting, abuse color light, easy to cause waste and damage the overall effect, is not allowed.

The main management department shall put forward requirements and restrictions on each unit according to the plan.


Urban night landscape is composed of various landscape elements, which form interrelated relations, such as the logical relationship, topological relationship and the relationship between elements and the whole.

These relationships cannot be measured in terms of a pattern, a type.

Features a large range of city night view lighting environment, public observer's visual range at a certain moment can't be in the fully cover the entire urban lighting landscape, in terms of forming impression, the order is local before the whole, in forming local impression and overall feeling there is a time lag.


We should fully understand and grasp the correlation and transference relationship of urban landscape elements, and skillfully coordinate the changes of light, color and strength.

The lighting layout should be reasonable, overall coordination, the emphasis is prominent, there is a detailed, clear level.


Consider the color of light


The light of the same light color is irradiated on the object of different color, the color that presents is different, especially when some environment sees in the day the color is rich and beautiful, project with chromatic light should add special caution.

In addition, because the light at night is much darker than the light at day, people's comfort response to light color varies with the basic illumination of the environment.

For example, during the day, a large area of green space gives people the feeling of youth, vitality and vitality. However, at night, a green light often causes a gloomy and cold feeling.

Light projected on the building at the same time are often large, and the size of the patch area of people's psychological reaction is have a certain influence, but the right light can also strengthen the lighting effects, such as different parts of a building can be projected to emphasize the structure of the different light level and so on.

Therefore, we should use color light carefully to prevent color imbalance.


Consider security and reliability


In the design and construction of landscape lighting, the lighting equipment, electrical equipment and control system should ensure the maturity and reliability of technology, and pay special attention to safety.

Safety means not causing harm to the people around you or damaging the environment.

Safety also includes the mechanical strength, electrical, construction, operation and installation safety of the lamp itself and its distribution equipment.

Lamps and lanterns decorate appropriate concentration according to the situation, make the laid of line also can be concentrated relatively.

The position of the lamp should be convenient for installation and maintenance.

Otherwise, it is not easy to repair once there is a fault, or it is easy to occur safety accidents during installation and maintenance.

At the same time, we should not only focus on the lighting effect at night, but also ignore the observation of lamps and lanterns in the daytime.

And pay attention to the protection. The protection here includes the damage, damage and loss of lamps caused by natural disasters, human disasters and animals.


Consider glare


When a bright light at night in the line of sight to 45 ° above or below the projection can cause glare, make the person cannot identify objects, walk and watch, even produce traffic accident, so the light projection direction to avoid the line of sight of people.

On the other hand, it is necessary to prevent light pollution and affect people's normal life and work.

If put into the bedroom influence rest, throw into the sky influence astronomical observation and so on.


Considering energy saving


The way a lot of night landscape lighting, can be cast from outside, also can be in the pervious to light, from the external projection in the architectural design should pay attention to the light problem, attention should be paid to shorten the optical path to reduce the power consumption, and does not affect the day much more at the same time.

The inner light transmission is more closely related to the architectural design scheme.

Therefore, designers of new construction should take these problems into consideration.


Consider hierarchical control


It should be preset to control by day or festival level. Under different control conditions, there should be a complete artistic effect, which can save electricity.


Consider ornamental value


If the position, style and color of the landscape lighting lamp do not consider the image of the day, it will cause damage to the city environment in the day.

Good consideration can also brighten the city during the day.

The lamp should be designed reasonably according to the actual situation, as far as possible to see the light without seeing the lamp, there should be decorative lamps, modeling, color should have ornamental.



The main factors to be considered in programme design


Natural environmental factor


Natural environmental factors include physical environment, chemical environment, biological environment and social environment.


The composition of the physical environment factors including temperature, flow, pressure, sound, light, radiation, etc., they are in a state of nature, can give a person a direct stimulation, make people get feeling behavior reflect.

The most direct factor of contact with landscape lighting is light.

Light is a language that can express the design concept and artistic pursuit of architects.

Light is a kind of invisible software that controls the function operation and color rendering of city and building.

Light is the "fourth dimension of architecture".


Therefore, we should take the initiative to understand the light, perceive the light, apply the light, actively participate in the design of light, and integrate the light into the planning and creation.


Chemical environment includes various gases, water, dust, chemical substances and other factors.

The oxidation of air to lamps, the corrosion of water to lamps, and the obstruction of dust to light will all affect the final result.

Choose lamps and lanterns to achieve waterproof, dustproof grade.


The biological environment consists of animals, plants, organisms and microbes.

Human beings are creatures.

In landscape design of buildings, plant species, growth status, distribution and change rules should also be considered.

Also want to undertake auxiliary design to the surrounding flowers and plants, trees, rest facilities and so on, form a complete lighting whole thereby.


Social environment refers to the humanistic environment centered on interpersonal relationship.

It covers a wide range of contents and has an impact on landscape design.


Human environment factor


It is a comprehensive ecological environment including politics, art, science, religion and aesthetics.


The environment is a cultural accumulation that slowly affects the environment.

Fixed environment includes buildings, Bridges, lights, fountains, lawns, sculptures, etc.

The lighting design of landscape designers is to create an atmosphere, a culture of desire.

This kind of culture can not be seen, can feel from it, affect mood.

If the lighting of the architectural landscape is too technical, it will make people feel stiff.

Ignoring the cultural state makes people feel passive acceptance.

The focus of landscape lighting should be natural and harmonious.

Therefore, designers should consider the layout, line, color, proportion, scale, texture, light, rhythm and rhythm of architecture and landscape.

Let the viewer feel natural, to actively seek, to dig, to experience, to ponder the taste.


Builder, investor factors


Market economy decides owner unit must proceed from respective economic interest, they take different attitude to implement lamplight project.

And the understanding depth of each owner to building, landscape lamplight and individual thought, consciousness, hobby, aesthetic viewpoint difference, formed the lamplight effect of colorful.


Color is closely related to people's mood and is also within the investor factor of the builder.

Blue brings peace and contentment.

Yellow gives a glorious and exciting feeling;

Red makes people eager to win and rejuvenate.

The combination of red and green makes people feel strong, reliable and resolute.

A touch of blue can make you feel safe and proud.

Red, orange, yellow and other warm colors can make people excited, warm atmosphere and so on.

Building facades should be carefully chosen green, blue, purple and other cold colors, improper use of easy to make people feel gloomy cold.


Lighting technical level factors


Attention should be paid to the application of high-tech and high-tech lighting equipment in landscape lighting engineering.

Innovation of technical means: innovation seeking for differences, using new technology, new light source, new materials, application of high technology.

Intelligence factors should also be considered.


Feasibility factors of the scheme


Include investor, stylist idea and intention, scene environment 3 respects.


Designers should have a comprehensive understanding of the properties, functions, environment, viewpoints, appearance features, architectural styles and architectural finishes of the landscape.

Analysis may watch the lights several viewpoints - far and near, high and low, around the four directions, setting out the main viewpoints and best viewpoint, and thus, the conception and the general effect of the landscape lighting.


The scene environment includes the brightness of the landscape background, the lighting condition of the local night scene, the local people's love and preference for color, the electricity supply and so on.


According to China's current regulations, the design is divided into two stages: preliminary design and construction drawing design.

Due to urban landscape lighting is different from other construction projects, it is a complicated system engineering, involving architecture, aesthetics, environment, human physiology aspects of discipline, is the second time the life to the art of light carrier to create, with particular emphasis on the landscape art effect and cultural taste, so the urban landscape lighting lighting engineering design procedure is divided into three stages: the scheme design, preliminary design and construction drawing design.

This paper only analyzes the content that is easy to ignore in the scheme design.


Programming is very important.

Shall be carried out in a large number of site investigation, field exploration, design, analysis and calculation on the basis of determine the overall guiding ideology of the design scheme, the position of the main viewpoints and focus on content and words.


Establish the overall guiding ideology of the design scheme


The overall guiding idea of design scheme is the basis and standard of design.

Including design objects in the relationship of the elements of the scene, the relationship between the design objects and the environment, the design scheme to express the theme of the thought, design standard, the brightness of the light source color, etc.


It should also include the current situation and analysis, including the lighting situation and the existing problems.


Analyze the location and land, clarify the geographical location, and related environmental conditions;

Analyze the scene and layout, specify the function layout, especially emphasize the function function analysis.


Establish the position of the main viewpoint


For individual buildings, it generally refers to the direction facing the street or important institutions.

For a region, find the axis direction or main line direction of the region.

Find out the central area, the main view lines, the main view points.

The relationship is very important.

Also consider lighting lamp light, radiation, psychological analysis of tourists behavior (analysis of visitors to the viewer to watch best time, best view point and psychological feelings), truly people-oriented.


Identify key performance items


Each site or building has its own unique design style and intention.

Especially iconic buildings and small items.

Want to hold this point strictly, as the most important that lamplight USES, through careful and exaggerated gimmick outstanding key, make the finishing point.


General idea


Write design ideas, presentation techniques, dynamic and static state, lighting effect description, etc.


Describe detailed design


Find out the details, conduct feature analysis, project approval, program presentation.

How to deal with which part, specific practice should be explained clearly.


Determine the lighting level


Be sure to set a moderate lighting value.

There are two factors to consider.


Lighting prospect: the subject of illumination.

Its color and reflective properties.

Be sure to consider its natural color to avoid contrast.

The transmittance and reflectance should be considered for objects with transmittance.


Background lighting: refers to the ambient light of the subject and the lighting condition of adjacent buildings or landscapes.

Brightness is always relative, standing against the background, changing with the environment.

A brighter background requires more light to achieve the desired effect, while a darker background requires less light.

Anyhow, want to highlight foreground, must make illume foreground brightness is higher than background brightness.


Determine the lighting mode, lighting source and lamps


There are many ways of landscape lighting. There is no fixed mode.

A large number of engineering practice surface, using a variety of three-dimensional space lighting method than a single good effect.


The determination of illume illuminant and lamps and lanterns is very important, must indicate in the plan, with what illuminant, lamps and lanterns, with what illume means, achieve what environmental effect.


Other statements


The application of color light, the design of lighting control system, the design of maintenance management measures, the engineering budget estimate, the expected lighting effect diagram are all indispensable in the text of the lighting design scheme.



Special emphasis is placed on renderings


The landscape lighting design is also simulated by using color renderings, but the renderings are only the subjective imagination of the author.

The implementation of creative solutions for every individual, depends on the lighting design, it includes the lamp type, power, lamp, projection direction and calculation data, and so on many aspects, lighting scheme results whether can achieve the result of intent, can't just rely on rendering.

Therefore, it is necessary to draw the real effect diagram through the calculation data of lighting brightness distribution.

Otherwise, it will cause unexpected difficulties to the construction.